My laboratory is broadly interested in how differential gene expression is controlled. One major effort in the laboratory is the study of the transcription factor known as NF-kB. NF-kB serves as the prototype of the inducible transcription factor since it is found in the cytoplasm of most cells in association with an inhibitor known as IkB and since its movement into the nucleus can be induced by various physiological stimuli. Once in the nucleus, NF-kB regulates a wide range of critical genes including those involved in cell growth control and in immune and inflammatory responses. In addition, NF-kB is a critical regulator of HIV gene expression. Present studies in the laboratory are focused on identifying the signal transduction pathways involved in activation of NF-kB and the role of this transcription factor in mediating diseases such as cancer and in controlling apoptosis.