The final version of the “Climate Science Special Report.” coauthored by Biology Professor John Bruno, was recently released. As the first of two volumes of the 4th National Climate Assessment, the CSSR describes physical and chemical changes to the nations land and coastal waters, e.g., in weather, ocean chemistry, and global temperature. A key finding was that based on extensive evidence it is extremely likely that human activities, especially emissions of greenhouse gases, are the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century. This nearly 500 page document is considered the world’s most comprehensive and up to date synthesis of climate change science. Volume 2, which will be about the effects of climate changes on people and the oceans, will come out in Dec. 2018.